The Islamic Republic of Iran with an area of 1,648,195 square kilometers is located in Southwest Asia and the Middle East. The territory of Iran in the north is neighboring with Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, in the west with Turkey and Iraq, and in the east with Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is also limited to the Caspian Sea to the north and the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf to the south.
The Official Flag of Iran is composed of green, white, and red colors, with the special emblem of the Islamic Republic, together with the State Motto - 22 Allah-Akbar that marks the day of the victory of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The official language and script are Persian. But other languages such as Turkish, Kurdish, Lori, Arabic, Baluchi, Gilaki, Tati are spoken in different parts of the country.
According to the latest national census, the population of Iran is about 75 million people, more than twelve million people live in the capital of Tehran and it is the most populated city. Most of Iran's population consists of Aryan Caucasoid, but groups of Negroid live in the south and southwest of Iran and a number of Mongoloid, including Turkmen and Kazakhs in northwestern Iran. The most important ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeri Turks, Turkmens, Kurds, Lors, Bakhtiari, Arabs, Tats, and Baluchs. In today's society of Iran, due to the expansion of communication and the mixing of people with each other, different ethnic groups have been interconnected, and over time, it has become more difficult to determine the boundaries of the ethnic boundaries. The official religion of the country is Islam, which accounts for about 98.5% of the country's population as Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. However, religious diversity in Iran is not low, and the other population is Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and very few percentages of other religions. Iran is the origin of Zoroastrian religion, and most of the sacred places of the followers of this ancient religion are located in the provinces of Yazd and Kerman. A group of followers of the Jewish religion has also lived long before in Iran, and the tomb of one of its main prophets, Daniel, is located in the city of Susa in southwestern Iran, and there is also one of the most sacred shrines of the world's Jews in Hamedan. In addition, a number of Christians, most of the Armenians and Assyrians, live in different parts of Iran, especially in Urumia, Tehran, and Esfahan. The churches of St. Stephen and Vank Cathedral, which are among the oldest churches in the world, are located in the provinces of West Azerbaijan and Isfahan. They are among the world's heritage.
The geographic location of Iran has caused a great deal of climate and natural diversity, and Iran is a four-season country. The major part of the country's land is mountains and heights, with an average elevation of over 1200 meters. From the north and west of the Alborz and the Zagros Mountains, and from the east of the eastern mountain range, they surround Iran's plateau. Nevertheless, Iran, a country with a warm, dry and rainy climate, with an average annual rainfall of about one-third of the global average. One-fifth of Iran's country is formed by desert areas; areas with an annual rainfall of less than 100 mm, severe evaporation, and minimum biological regeneration. The most important deserts of Iran are Kavir Desert and Lut Desert. As most of the gathering centers of people are near water, dehydration has caused some cities and villages to be distant from each other. Also, this feature has made it possible for the inhabitants of the Iranian plateau to access the Qanat technology for accessing to underground water. In the meantime, a small part in the north and on the margin of the Caspian Sea has temperate and semi-temperate Mediterranean climates. Neighboring the mountains and the sea and the presence of the Hyrcanian forests of the third century, geology has created a different landscape from other parts of Iran in this small part of this vast country. West of Iran, with a different climate from the north and center, is located in the foothills of the Zagros mountain range with relatively high cold and high altitudes, having tinny oak forests. South of Iran, on the Persian Gulf Coast and the Oman Sea, which leads to international waters, is a land of two seasons with warm and long summers.
This climate diversity has caused most of the plant species to be cultivated in the country and the types of flowers and medicinal plants exported in addition to domestic supply. In the fruit market of the cities, you can find all kinds of fruits such as mangoes, bananas, oranges, apricots, pomegranates, watermelons, dates, apples, pears, and grapes, all of which are produced in Iran. Other agricultural products such as sugar cane, wheat, and rice are also produced in Iran. For many years, this land has been known for producing gardening products, and a major part of non-oil exports is fruit. Iran is the second largest exporter of pistachios and dates in the world and one of the main producers of saffron, almonds, citrus, as well as apples, pears, and grapes. Caviar is also one of the products of Iran's production and export, which comes from caviar fish, whose habitat is the Caspian Sea. Due to the danger of extinction of this fish, this product is currently limited. Iran is the fourth largest oil exporter and the world's second-largest gas supplier. Since there are various mines in the country, part of the other Iranian exports is Iranian mineral resources, such as iron, copper, aluminum, lead, chromite, ornamental stones and precious stones. In addition, Iran is a land of colorful and beautiful carpets. The largest and most beautiful palaces in the world are often covered with Persian carpets. Other exported handicrafts include clay, ceramic and miniature.
Attractions of Iran
The variety of attractions in Iran has called it "A world in a boundary." This is so diverse that there is an incentive for anyone with a particular taste to travel to this vast land. Perhaps we can classify these attractions as:
Factors such as geological status, topography, altitude, landform, climatic factors, and longitude vary widely in different parts of Iran. The range of elevation changes from 28 meters below sea level in the Caspian Sea to 5610 meters in the Damavand peak and the range of temperature variations of -35 ° C in the northwest of the country in the winter to 50 degrees Celsius in the Persian Gulf in the summer. Variety of flowers and vegetation, salty and sweet lakes, ski trails, wide deserts such as the Lut plain and the Kavir desert, the beautiful coastal waters of the south of the Caspian Sea, and the coasts and islands of the south of the country with pleasant weather in the cold seasons, high mountains, areas Quaternary environments (park, natural effect, wildlife sanctuary, protected area), thousands of hot and cold mineral springs, waterfalls, numerous unique caves throughout Iran such as the Alisadr Cave of Hamedan and Qeshm Namakdan Cave, Hirkani forests in the north And the beautiful oak forests of the west of the country, wetlands, rivers and lakes, are only a small part of the attractions. Among the attractions of Iran, the Lut desert has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Cultural and social attractions
The life of nomadic, whose livelihoods represent centuries of efforts to adapt to the environment, is one of the most beautiful effects of Iranian culture. Villagers are also a symbol of a one-sided social system with unique social values. Diverse livelihoods, traditional irrigation systems, crop rotation, marriage customs, celebrations and mournings, local cuisine and traditional cuisine are some of the most interesting cultural features that will bring visitors closer to the experience of a memorable experience. The physical space and traditional structure of villages, especially villages like Abyaneh, Masouleh, Kandovan and ... represent the intelligence and harmony of man with nature. The scenery of staircase houses, beautiful valleys and high mountains in mountainous villages, wooden houses and rocks in the northern villages, dome houses, cistern and awning in the desert and plain villages, landscapes and flats and mud and stone houses and brick houses in Dashti villages Wooden palm trees and houses with long windings in the coastal and island villages have diverse spaces of villages across Iran, each of which has unique beauty and features. Some of the customs of the tribes are among the legacies of the world.
Iran's plateau is one of the oldest centers of ancient civilization in Asia and one of the first human habitats and therefore has a special value. The position of Iran, like the bridge between the East and West, has placed the country in the path of Silk Road and its ancient history to this land. Iranian culture and civilization have always been regarded by scholars, sociologists, and researchers. There are many tourist attractions in Iran that reflect the history, culture, and civilization of Iran and has attracted many visitors in recent years. The reviews of these valuable attractions include: Delmen (mapping of history) in Maryan Talesh and caves of Behshahr with works dating back to 12,000 years; works of Elamite civilization such as Choghazenbil and Eshkat Salman; Remnants of the Medes in Hamedan, Mahabad, Kermanshah and Fars The works of the Achaemenid period include Apadana palaces and halls, Persepolis, Pasargadae, Bishtun and Temple of the Gholam Abad, works of the Parthian period, such as the One Hundred Gates and works of the Sassanid era such as Anahita Temple and Taq Bostan, which are pre-Islamic monuments. In addition, numerous monuments from the Islamic era have survived throughout Iran, with beautiful mosques such as the Yazd Mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque and Goharshad Mosque, palaces, historic schools, caravansaries, baths, minarets, monasteries, water reservoirs, wind farms, houses Old mansions, gardens, and domes such as Soltanieh dome are among the most prominent examples. A number of Iranian historical monuments have been recorded on the World Heritage Site.